Appendix 1: Footnotes

1 Elder RW, Lawrence B, Ferguson A, et al. The effectiveness of tax policy interventions for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. Am J Prev Med. 2010;38(2):217-229. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2009.11.005.

2 Bonnie RJ, O’Connell ME, eds. Reducing Underage Drinking: A Collective Responsibility. Washington, D.C.: National Academies Press; 2004.

3 The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevention Status Reports. Atlanta, GA; 2015.

4 Wagenaar AC, Salois MJ, Komro KA. Effects of beverage alcohol price and tax levels on drinking: A meta-analysis of 1003 estimates from 112 studies. Addiction. 2009;104(2):179-190. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2008.02438.x.

5 Cook PJ. Paying the Tab: The Costs and Benefits of Alcohol Control. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press; 2007.

6 Kenkel DS. Are alcohol tax hikes fully passed through to prices? Evidence from Alaska. Am Econ Rev. 2005;95(2):273-277. doi:10.1257/000282805774670284.

7 Young DJ, Bielinska-Kwapisz A. Alcohol taxes and beverage prices. Natl Tax J. 2002;55(1):57-73.

8 Wagenaar AC, Tobler AL, Komro KA. Effects of alcohol tax and price policies on morbidity and mortality: A systematic review. Am J Public Health. 2010;100(11):2270-2278. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2009.186007.

9 Staras SAS, Livingston MD, Christou AM, Jernigan DH, Wagenaar AC. Heterogeneous population effects of an alcohol excise tax increase on sexually transmitted infections morbidity. Addiction. 2014;109(6):904-912. doi:10.1111/add.12493.

10 Coate D, Grossmann M. Effects of alcoholic beverage prices and legal drinking ages on youth alcohol use. J Law Econ. 1988;31(1):145-171. doi:10.1086/467152.

11 Daley JI, Stahre MA, Chaloupka FJ, Naimi TS. The impact of a 25-cent-per-drink alcohol tax increase. Am J Prev Med. 2012;42(4):382-389. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2011.12.008.

12 Kenkel DS. Drinking, driving, and deterrence: The effectiveness and social costs of alternative policies. J Law Econ. 1993;36(2):877-913. doi:10.1086/467301.

13 Dent CW, Grube JW, Biglan A. Community level alcohol availability and enforcement of possession laws as predictors of youth drinking. Prev Med. 2005;40(3):355-362. doi:10.1097/MPG.0b013e3181a15ae8.Screening.

14 Nelson TF, Naimi TS, Brewer RD, Wechsler H. The state sets the rate: The relationship among state-specific college binge drinking, state binge drinking rates, and selected state alcohol control policies. Am J Public Health. 2005;95(3):441-446. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2004.043810.

15 Xuan Z, Blanchette JG, Nelson TF, et al. Youth drinking in the United States: Relationships with alcohol policies and adult drinking. Pediatrics. 2015;136(1):18-27. doi:10.1542/peds.2015-0537.

16 Esser MB, Hedden SL, Kanny D, Brewer RD, Gfroerer JC, Naimi TS. Prevalence of alcohol dependence among US adult drinkers, 2009-2011. Prev Chronic Dis. 2014;11:E206. doi:10.5888/pcd11.140329.

17 Cook PJ, Tauchen G. The effect of liquor taxes on heavy drinking. Bell J Econ. 1982;13(2):379-390. doi:10.2307/3003461.

18 Xu X, Chaloupka FJ. The effects of prices on alcohol use and its consequences. Alcohol Res Heal. 2011;34(2):236-345.

19 Esser MB, Waters H, Smart M, Jernigan DH. Impact of Maryland’s 2011 alcohol sales tax increase on alcoholic beverage sales. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2016;42(4):404-411. doi:10.3109/00952990.2016.1150485.

20 Pacula RL. Does increasing the beer tax reduce marijuana consumption? J Health Econ. 1998;17(5):557-585. doi:10.1016/S0167-6296(97)00039-8.

21 Alcohol-Related Harms. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Accessed May 25, 2016.

22 Prevention Status Reports 2013. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Accessed December 11, 2015.

23 Babor T, Caetano C, Casswell S, et al. Alcohol No Ordinary Commodity: Research and Public Policy. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2010.

24 US Department of Health and Human Services Office of the Surgeon General. Surgeon General’s Workshop on Drunk Driving: Proceedings. Washington, D.C.; 1989. Accessed May 25, 2016.

25 Alcohol–Excessive Consumption: Increasing Alcohol Taxes. The Community Guide website. Accessed October 21, 2015.

26 National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. A Call to Action: Changing the Culture of Drinking at U.S. Colleges. Bethesda, MD; 2002.

27 World Health Organization. Scaling up Action against Noncommunicable Diseases: How Much Will It Cost? Geneva, Switzerland; 2011.

28 Welcome to the Alcohol Policy Information System. Alcohol Policy Information System website. Accessed June 13, 2016.

29 Kerr WC, Patterson D, Greenfield TK, et al. U.S. alcohol affordability and real tax rates, 1950–2011. Am J Prev Med. 2013;44(5):459-464. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2013.01.007.

30 Sparks M, Jernigan DH, Mosher JF. Strategizer 55: Regulating Alcohol Outlet Density. Baltimore, MD; 2011. Density Strategizer_Nov_2011.pdf.

31 Kerr WC, Williams E, Greenfield TK. Analysis of price changes in Washington following the 2012 liquor privatization. Alcohol Alcohol. 2015;50(6):654-660. doi:10.1093/alcalc/agv067.

32 Hahn RA, Middleton JC, Elder R, et al. Effects of alcohol retail privatization on excessive alcohol consumption and related harms: A community guide systematic review. Am J Prev Med. 2012;42(4):418-427. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2012.01.002.

33 US Department of Health and Human Services. Report to Congress on the Prevention and Reduction of Underage Drinking. Washington, D.C.; 2013.

34 Klitzner M. Improving the Measurement of State Alcohol Taxes. Bethesda, MD; 2012.

35 Xuan Z, Chaloupka FJ, Blanchette JG, et al. The relationship between alcohol taxes and binge drinking: Evaluating new tax measures incorporating multiple tax and beverage types. Addiction. 2015;110(3):441-450. doi:10.1111/add.12818.

36 Beer Institute. The Brewers Alamac 2015. Washington, D.C.; 2015.

37 Alcohol Rates 2000-2010, 2013-2017. Tax Policy Center Urban Institute & Brookings Institution website. Accessed June 2, 2016.

38 Chicago, Illinois, Municipal Code § 3-44-030.

39 Mosher JF, Adler SS, Pamukcu AM, Treffers RD. Review of State Laws Restricting Local Authority to Impose Alcohol Taxes in the United States. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2017;78(2):241-248. doi:10.15288/jsad.2017.78.241.

40 Sacks JJ, Gonzales KR, Bouchery EE, Tomedi LE, Brewer RD. 2010 National and State costs of excessive alcohol consumption. Am J Prev Med. 2015;49(5):e73-e79. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2015.05.031.

41 Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau. FY 2013 President’s Budget Submission. Washington, D.C.; 2013. – FY 2013 TTB CJ.pdf.

42 Alcohol Tax Revenue 1977 to 2014. Tax Policy Center Urban Institute & Brookings Institution website. Accessed May 23, 2017.

43 Excessive Drinking is Draining the U.S. Economy. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Accessed July 3, 2016.

44 Alaska Stat. §§ 43.60.010, 43.60.050.

45 N.J. Stat. §§ 26:2B-32, 54:43-1.1.

46 Consumer Costs and Job Impacts from State Alcohol Tax Increases. Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health website. Accessed June 13, 2016.

47 Jones JM. Drinking Highest Among Educated, Upper-Income Americans. GALLUP. Published June 27, 2015.

48 US Department of Health and Human Services. CDC Health Disparities and Inequalities Report — United States, 2013. Atlanta, GA; 2013.

49 Diaz MC, Chaloupka FJ, Jernigan DH. The Effects of Alcohol Excise Tax Increases on Public Health and Safety in Texas. Austin, TX: Texans Standing Tall; 2015.

50 Kunz JL, Graham K. Drinking patterns, psychosocial characteristics and alcohol consequences. Addiction. 1998;93(7):1079-1090. doi:10.1046/j.1360-0443.1998.937107912.x.

51 Wada R, Chaloupka FJ, Powell LM, Jernigan DH. Employment Impacts of Alcohol Taxes. American Public Health Association website. Accessed May 25, 2016.

52 Mangione TW, Howland J, Amick B, et al. Employee drinking practices and work performance. J Stud Alcohol. 1999;60(2):261-270. doi:10.15288/jsa.1999.60.261.

53 Ames GM, Grube JW. Alcohol availability and workplace drinking: mixed method analyses. J Stud Alcohol. 1999;60(3):383-393.

54 Frone MR. Prevalence and distribution of alcohol use and impairment in the workplace: A U.S. national survey. J Stud Alcohol. 2006;67(1):147-156.

55 Jernigan DH, Waters H, Ross C, Stewart A. The Potential Economic Effects of Alcohol Excise Tax Increases in Maryland. Baltimore, MD; 2011.

56 Stehr M. Border Crossing to Purchase Alcoholic Beverages. Philadelphia, PA; 2005.

57 Stehr M. The effect of sunday sales bans and excise taxes on drinking and cross– border shopping for alcoholic beverages. Natl Tax J. 2007;60(1):85-105.

58 Beard TR, Gant PA, Saba RP. Border-crossing sales, tax avoidance, and state tax policies: an application to alcohol. South Econ J. 1997;64(1):293-306. doi:10.2307/1061053.

59 Ye Y, Kerr WC. Estimated increase in cross-border purchases by Washington residents following liquor privatization and implications for alcohol consumption trends. Addiction. 2016;111(11):1948-1953. doi:10.1111/add.13481.

60 Nesbit TM, King-Adzima KA. The Revenue Impacts of Cross-Border Sales and Tourism: Wine and Liquor Taxation in West Virginia and Its Neighors. Charleston, SC; 2011.

61 Fleenor P. How Excise Tax Differentials Affect Interstate Smuggling and Cross-Border Sales of Cigarettes in the United States. Washington, D.C.; 1999.

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