Appendix 1: Footnotes

1 Campbell CA, Hahn R a., Elder R, et al. The effectiveness of limiting alcohol outlet density as a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms. Am J Prev Med. 2009;37(6):556-569. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2009.09.028.

2 Mosher JF, Treffers RD. State pre-emption, local control, and alcohol retail outlet density regulation. Am J Prev ,Med. 2013;44(4):399-405. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2012.11.029.

3 Prevention Status Reports 2013 Alcohol-Related Harms. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Accessed May 26, 2016.

4 Fact Sheets – Preventing Excessive Alcohol Use. Centers for Disease Control website. Accessed May 5, 2016.

5 Babor T, Caetano C, Casswell S, et al. Regulating the physical availability of alcohol. In: Alcohol No Ordinary Commodity: Research and Public Policy. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2010:127-146.

6 Toomey TL, Erickson DJ, Carlin BP, et al. The association between density of alcohol establishments and violent crime within urban neighborhoods. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2012;36(8):1468-1473. doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2012.01753.x.

7 Smith LA, Foxcroft DR. The effect of alcohol advertising, marketing and portrayal on drinking behaviour in young people: systematic review of prospective cohort studies. BMC Public Health. 2009;9:51. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-9-51.

8 Anderson P, De Bruijn A, Angus K, Gordon R, Hastings G. Impact of alcohol advertising and media exposure on adolescent alcohol use: A systematic review of longitudinal studies. Alcohol Alcohol. 2009;44(3):229-243. doi:10.1093/alcalc/agn115.

9 Roncek DW, Maier PA. Bars, blocks, and crimes revisited: Linking the theory of routine activities to the empiricism of “hot spots.” Criminology. 1991;29(4):725-753. doi:10.1111/j.1745-9125.1991.tb01086.x.

10 Zhang X, Hatcher B, Clarkson L, et al. Changes in density of on-premises alcohol outlets and impact on violent crime, Atlanta, Georgia, 1997-2007. Prev Chronic Dis. 2015;12(8):E84. doi:10.5888/pcd12.140317.

11 Sparks M, Jernigan DH, Mosher JF. Strategizer 55: Regulating Alcohol Outlet Density. Baltimore, MD; 2011. Density Strategizer_Nov_2011.pdf.

12 National Alcohol Beverage Control Association. 2013-2014 Survey Book. Alexandria, VA; 2014.

13 Center for the Study of Law and Enforcement Policy. Best Practices in Municipal Regulation to Reduce Alcohol-Related Harms from Licensed Alcohol Outlets. Felton, CA; 2014.

14 Lipton R, Gruenewald P. The spatial dynamics of violence and alcohol outlets. J Stud Alcohol. 2002;63(2):187-195.

15 Wittmann FD. Restaurants That “Morph” into Bars and Nightclubs in California Communities: What’s the Problem and What Can Be Done About It? Santa Rosa, CA; 2012. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002797.3.

16 The Control Systems. National Alcohol Beverage Control Association website. Accessed June 23, 2016.

17 Welcome to the Alcohol Policy Information System. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism website. Accessed June 22, 2016.

18 Hahn RA, Middleton JC, Elder R, et al. Effects of alcohol retail privatization on excessive alcohol consumption and related harms: A community guide systematic review. Am J Prev Med. 2012;42(4):418-427. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2012.01.002.

19 Alcohol – Excessive Consumption: Privatization of Retail Alcohol Sales. The Community Guide website. Accessed May 8, 2017.

20 Livingston M. A longitudinal analysis of alcohol outlet density and assault. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2008;32(6):1074-1079. doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2008.00669.x.

21 Weitzman ER, Folkman A, Folkman KL, Wechsler H. The relationship of alcohol outlet density to heavy and frequent drinking and drinking-related problems among college students at eight universities. Heal Place. 2003;9(1):1-6. doi:10.1016/S1353-8292(02)00014-X.

22 Berke EM, Tanski SE, Demidenko E, Alford-Teaster J, Shi X, Sargent JD. Alcohol retail density and demographic predictors of health disparities: A geographic analysis. Am J Public Heal. 2010;100(10):1967-1971. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2009.170464.

23 Gruenewald PJ, Freisthler B, Remer L, LaScala EA, Treno A. Ecological models of alcohol outlets and violent assaults: crime potentials and geospatial analysis. Addiction. 2006;101(5):666-677. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2006.01405.x.

24 US Department of Health and Human Services Office of the Surgeon General. The Surgeon General’s Call to Action to Prevent and Reduce Underage Drinking. Rockville, MD; 2007.

25 Mosher JF, Mottl JR. The role of non-alcohol agencies in federal regulation of drinking behavior and consequences. In: Moore MH, Gersein DR, eds. Alcohol and Public Policy: Beyond the Shadow of Prohibition. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 1981:388-458.

26 Flournoy R. Healthy Food, Healthy Communities: Promising Strategies to Improve Access to Fresh, Healthy Food and Transform Communities. Oakland, CA; 2011.

27 The Alameda County Public Health Department. Life and Death from Unnatural Causes: Health and Social Equitiy in Alameda County. Oakland, CA; 2008.

28 Romley JA, Cohen D, Ringel J, Sturm R. Alcohol and environmental justice: The density of liquor stores and bars in urban neighborhoods in the United States. J Stud Alcohol Drugs. 2007;68(1):48-55.

29 Bodor JN, Ulmer VM, Dunaway LF, Farley TA, Rose D. The rationale behind small food store interventions in low-income urban neighborhoods: Insights from New Orleans. J Nutr. 2010;140(6):1185-1188. doi:10.3945/jn.109.113266.

30 Alwitt LF, Donley TD. Retail stores in poor urban neighborhoods. J Consum Aff. 1997;31(1):139-164. doi:10.1111/j.1745-6606.1997.tb00830.x.

31 Morland K, Wing S, Roux AD, Poole C. Neighborhood characteristics associated with the location of food stores and food service places. Am J Prev Med. 2002;22(1):23-29. doi:10.1016/S0749-3797(01)00403-2.

32 Truong KD, Sturm R. Alcohol environments and disparities in exposure associated with adolescent drinking in California. Am J Public Health. 2009;99(2):264-270. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2007.122077.

33 Gruenewald PJ. Regulating availability: How access to alcohol affects drinking and problems in youth and adults. Alcohol Res Heal. 2011;34(2):248-256.

34 The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevention Status Reports. Atlanta, GA; 2015.

35 Alcohol-Related Harms. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Accessed June 22, 2016.

36 Prevention Status Reports 2013. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Accessed December 11, 2015.

37 The Community Preventive Task Force. Recommendations for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms by limiting alcohol outlet density. Am J Prev Med. 2009;37(6):570-571. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2009.09.021.

38 US Department of Health and Human Services Office of the Surgeon General. Surgeon General’s Workshop on Drunk Driving: Proceedings. Washington, D.C.; 1989. Accessed May 25, 2016.

39 Padilla AM, Morrissey L. Place of last drink by repeat DUI offenders: A retrospective study of gender and ethnic group differences. Hisp J Behav Sci. 1993;15(3):357-372. doi:10.1177/07399863930153005.

40 Naimi TS, Nelson DE, Brewer RD. Driving after binge drinking. Am J Prev Med. 2009;37(4):314-320. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2009.06.013.

41 Floresta Inc. v. City Council, 190 Cal. App. 2d 599, 605 (1961).

42 Cal. Bus. & Prof. Code § 23790.

43 Cal. Bus. & Prof. Code § 23790.5.

44 Mosher JF, Cannon C, Treffers R. Reducing Community Alcohol Problems Associated with Alcohol Sales: The Case of Deemed Approved Ordinances in California. Felton, CA; 2009.

45 Guide to Community Preventive Services. Alcohol – Excessive Consumption: Regulation of Alcohol Outlet Density. Page last updated: November 08, 2017. Page accessed: February 23, 2018.

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